Cell Phone Environmental Impact
As described in detail in Waste in the Wireless World by Bette K. Fishbein, cell phones (and other electronic devices) are an especially problematic component of the waste stream because they contain a large number of hazardous substances, which can pollute the air when burned in incinerators and leach into soil and drinking water when buried in landfills. Many of these toxic substances - including antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc - belong to a class of chemicals known as persistent toxins, which linger in the environment for long periods without breaking down. Some of them - including the metals lead and cadmium - also tend to accumulate in the tissues of plants and animals, building up in the food chain to dangerous levels even when released in very small quantities.
These persistent, bioaccumulative toxins, or PBTS, have been associated with cancer and a range of reproductive, neurological, and developmental disorders. They pose a particular threat to children, whose developing systems are especially vulnerable to toxic assault. Most of the persistent toxins and PBTs contained in cell phones are in the printed wiring board and liquid-crystal display.
The PBT of greatest concern in cell phones is lead, a heavy metal recognized as a problem material throughout the world. Lead is a suspected carcinogen, has adverse effects on the central nervous system, immune system, and kidneys, and has been linked to developmental abnormalities.
Another hazardous constituent of cell phones is brominated flame-retardants, which are added to plastics to reduce the risk of fire. They are used primarily in the phones’ printed wiring boards, cables, and plastic housings.
Research indicates that some brominated flame-retardants can be persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic, while the impacts of others are still being evaluated. Two categories of flame-retardant - polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - have been associated with cancer and disruption of the immune and endocrine systems. In addition, some of these substances can form dioxins and furans, a group of highly toxic and persistent by-products of combustion, when products that contain them are incinerated.
The rechargeable batteries that power cell phones also contain a number of highly toxic substances. Through the mid-1990s, the most commonly used power source in cell phones was nickel-cadmium batteries (Ni-Cds). Cadmium is a PBT and probable human carcinogen that can cause lung, liver, and kidney damage and is toxic to wildlife. Lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydride batteries are increasingly replacing Ni-Cds in cell phones, but these contain cobalt, zinc, and copper - all heavy metals that can be toxic to plants, wildlife, and human beings.